PSYD 780: History and Systems of Psychotherapy

Thomas R. McCambridge, Ph.D.
Cell:  (805) 279-1125

Fall, 2015
3 Units
Tuesday, 9:00 a.m. - 11:45 a.m.
Oxnard Learning Center  #118
Office Hours: to be arranged

California Lutheran University is committed to providing reasonable accommodations to students with various documented disabilities (physical, learning, or psychological). If you are a student requesting accommodations for this course, please contact me at the beginning of the semester and register with the Coordinator for Students With Disabilities (Pearson Library, Center for Academic Resources, Ext 3260) for the facilitation and verification of need. Faculty will work closely with you and your coordinator to provide necessary accommodations.




A one-semester survey of understandings of the interior life and definitions of “the good life,” from the ancient Greeks and Hebrews; through the great intellectual and cultural changes of the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment; to the 19th Century development of the social sciences, including psychology; to the development of various understandings of mental health and the resulting development of various forms of psychotherapy.

In addition to gaining an understanding of various psychotherapeutic practices, students will engage in an examination of the ideas of what it means to be human that underlie those practices.




The goal is for students to acquire knowledge and develop understanding of the history of treatments of the interior life. Students should be able to draw connections from past to present, come to understand the influence of historical and cultural context. The main objectives of this course can be detailed as follows:

1.   To acquire an understanding of the historical basis of the content of psychology as a social science.

2.   To gain a deeper understanding of the ever greater emphasis on the scientific approach to psychology in the last centuries.

3.   To have the capacity to recognize “what is new” and “what is old” in the field of psychology.

4.   To develop the capability to research and articulate a theoretical model of “What it means to be human”, from a psychological perspective.

5.   To formulate and to articulate one’s own psychological perspectives.


Consistent with university-wide learning outcomes, in this course, students will have ample opportunity to gain experience and expertise in ways that will help develop and strengthen their: (a) professional preparation; (b) critical thinking skills; and, (c) refine written and enhance oral communication skills. Through completing this course in a satisfactory manner, students will be able to meet the specific course- and program-level learning outcomes regarding the scientific foundations of psychology.




Course Textbook:        

Hergenhahn, B.R and Henley, T.B., An Introduction to the History
     of Psychology
(7th edition)

          Additional Readings as Assigned


Buhler, C. (1974). The scope of humanistic psychology. Education, 95(1), 2-8.

Buss, D. M. (2009). The great struggles of life: Darwin and the emergence of evolutionary psychology. American Psychologist, 64(2), 140-148. Doi:10.1037/a0013207.

Cassel, J., Cassel, D., & Manning, L. (2013). From Augustine of Hippo’s memory systems to our modern taxonomy in cognitive psychology and neuroscience of memory: A 16-Century nap of intuition before light of evidence. Behavioral Sciences (2076-328X), 3(1), 21-41. Doi:10.3390/bs3010021.

Cronbach, L. J. (1957). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 12(11), 671-684. Doi:10.1037/h0043943.

Cronbach, L. J. (1975). Beyond the two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 30(2), 116-127. Doi:10.1037/h0076829.

DeRobertis, E. M. (2013). Humanistic psychology: Alive in the 21st century?. Journal Of Humanistic Psychology, 53(4), 419-437.

Descartes, R. (2001). Meditations on first philosophy. South Bend, IN, USA: Infomotions, Inc.  Retrieved from at (Meditations I and II.)

Dewey, J. (1891). Science and method of psychology. In Dewey (Ed.), Psychology (3rd rev. ed.) (pp. 1-14). American Book Company. Doi:10.1037/10900-001. Retrieved from .

Dewey, J. (1960). Faith and its object. In Dewey (Ed.) Terry Lectures : Common faith (pp. 29-57). New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press. Retrieved from at .

Dewsbury, D. A. (2009). Charles Darwin and psychology at the bicentennial and sesquicentennial: An introduction. American Psychologist, 64(2), 67-74. Doi:10.1037/a0013205

Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. New York, NY, US: W W Norton & Co.

Gerard, E. O. (1966). Medieval psychology: Dogmatic Aristoteliamism or observational empiricism? Journal of the history of the behavioral sciences, 2(4), 315-329. Doi:10.1002/1520-6696(196610)2:4<315::AID-JHBS2300020405>3.0.CO;2-D

Harris, B. (1979). Whatever happened to little Albert?. American Psychologist, 34(2), 151-160. Doi:10.1037/0003-066X.34.2.151

Hume, D. (2000). An enquiry concerning human understanding. Kitchener, Ontario, CAN: Batoche Books. Retrieved from at

James, W. (1897a). The will to believe. In James, W. (Ed.), The will to believe and other popular essays (pp. 1-31). New York: Longmans, Green and Co. Retrieved from .

James, W. (1897b). The dilemma of determinism. In James, W. (Ed.), The will to believe and other popular essays (pp. 145-183). New York: Longmans, Green and Co. Retrieved from .

Locke, J. (2001). An essay concerning human understanding. South Bend, IN, USA: Infomotions, Inc.  Retrieved from at (Book I, Chapter 1.)

Plato, & Jowett, B. (n.d). Meno. Champaign, Ill: Project Gutenberg. Books. Retrieved from

Porter, B. F. (2010a). What the Tortoise taught us: The story of philosophy. Blue Ridge Summit, PA, USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Retrieved from at (Ch. 2: Being governed by the mind: Rational thought; pp.  25-55.)

Porter, B. F. (2010b). What the Tortoise taught us: The story of philosophy. Blue Ridge Summit, PA, USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Retrieved from at (Ch. 5: How things seem and what they are: Epistemology; pp.  109-130.)

Rogers, C. R. (1974). In retrospect: Forty-six years. American Psychologist, 29(2), 115-123. Doi:10.1037/h0035840

Skinner (1990). Address to the American Psychological Association. Retrieved from at .



Rosnow, R. L., & Rosnow, M. (2011). Writing Papers in Psychology (9th Edition). Wadsworth Publishing. [ISBN: 978-1-111-72613-3]




Exams:   There will be two exams: a midterm on October 20 and a final on December 15. Both will be essay exams and will be cumulative. You will be asked to write 4 essay questions in no more than 2 hours. There will be some choice. Three-four weeks before the exam, I will give you a study guide for the exam. If you prepare the guide, you will be prepared for the exam.

Paper:  The paper will be 1500-2000 words on a topic of your choice. The paper must have a clear and specific thesis and that thesis must be developed throughout the paper. Generally, the paper should focus on some large question either covered in the course or implied in the course which you should examine. This is not a research paper; it is a thoughtful analysis, interpretation, and evaluation by you.

Class Participation:   Participation in the activities of the class is essential and will be worth 25% of the semester grade. The course is heavily dependent on group discussion of the reading, so extensive preparation for class is necessary. Contributing to the discussion of the reading is also necessary. These contributions can be voluntary or assigned. You can't participate if you are not present, so absence, tardiness, and leaving early will adversely affect your grade.

The paper is due on December 8. During that class meeting, each student will do a brief but specific and inclusive presentation to the class based on the paper.


Grading Policy

Grades are assigned on the basis of the following scale:

100-94  A
93-90    A-
89-99    B+
-84   B
83-80    B-
79-78    C+
77-74    C
73-70    C-
69-68    D+
67-64    C
63-60    D-
59 and below    F

    An "A" is given to an exam answer or to a paper where the content is accurate and complete, the organization is logical and coherent, and the writing (syntax, grammar, spelling, etc.) is perfect.
    An "A-" is given when the content is accurate but not complete, the organization is logical and coherent, and the writing is close to perfect.
    A "B+" is given when the content is close to being accurate and complete, the organization is logical and coherent, and the writing is close to perfect.
    A "B" is given when the content is generally accurate but not complete, the organization is close to logical and coherent, and the writing is not marred by too many usage errors.
    A "B-" is given when the content is partially accurate and incomplete, the organization is haphazard, and the writing is marred by several usage errors.
    And so on.
    I will be happy to discuss any of my evaluations of your work with you at a time of mutual convenience. It is possible that either errors of fact or errors of judgment can be made, and I would be happy to correct such errors. In preparation for such discussions, I would ask you to write down the reasons you believe an error has been made and explain the reasons why the evaluation should have been different.


Midterm examination

October 20



December 8


Final examination

December 15


Class participation





September 8         Introduction to the course
                             Review of syllabus
                             Lecture:   The zeitgeist, post World War II
                             Class Discussion:  responses to questions; relative vs
                                      objective; “the good life”

September 15       Lecture:  A Universal Human Nature and Its Obligations
                             Reading:   text, pp. 41-61; Aristotle’s “Ethics,” Book I ;
                                      Genesis, Chapters 1-4 ; quotations from the
                                      Book of Proverbs  ; quotations from Confucius  ;

September 22       Lecture:  Man the Measure of All Things  
Reading: text, pp. 99-120


September 29       Lecture:       Application of Science to Philosophy
                                      and Psychology
          Reading:     text, pp. 122-167
          Class Activity:       First Discussion of the Paper
                                      Preview of Midterm Exam                           

October 6              Lecture:       Triumph of Rationalism
                             Reading:     text, pp. 168-194

October 13            Lecture:       Romantic Rejection of Rationalism
                             Reading:     text, pp. 195-218

October 20            Midterm Exam

October 27            Lecture:       Scientism and Social Science
                             Reading:     text, pp. 279-319 

November 3          Lecture:       Development of New Theories: Behaviorism
                             Reading:     text, pp. 368-436
                             Class Activity:       Second discussion of paper

November 10        Lecture:       Development of New Theories: Gestalt
                             Reading:     text, pp. 437-464 

November 17        Lecture:       Development of Psychotherapies: Psychoanalysis
                             Reading:     text, pp. 491-532

November 24        Lecture:     Development of Psychotherapies:  Humanistic
                             Reading:     text, pp. 533-566

December 1          Lecture:     Development of Psychotherapies:  Cognitive
                             Reading:  text, pp. 585-608

December 8          Class Activity: Review for Final Exam; student reports
                                      on paper
                             Paper Due

December 15        Final Exam



There will be an e-mail distribution list for this class and you will be responsible for all information sent on it. It will also be a way for us to communicate with one another outside of class time regarding assignments, questions of interest, research opportunities, etc.

    Twenty-five-percent of your grade depends on class participation. You cannot participate if you are not here, so any tardiness, leaving early, or absence will lower your grade. Roll will be taken at the beginning each class meeting.

    Participation means being present and engaged in the proceedings of the class. It includes the taking of notes, comments, questions, attentive listening, and participation in discussion. It also means demonstrating that you have or have not done the assigned reading.


    There are no make-up tests and no late papers.  The assignment is either in on time or it receives a failing grade. Assume that there will be a catastrophe just as you have to turn in an assignment, and plan for it now. Seek assistance prior to due dates: Assignments may not be redone.

    There will be no arrangements made for taking the exams outside the prescribed times.

    Turn off all electronic communication devices before class begins. Notes are to be taken by hand, not on a computer or tablet.



Statement on Academic Honesty


The educational programs of California Lutheran University are designed and dedicated to achieve academic excellence, honesty and integrity at every level of student life. Part of CLU’s dedication to academic excellence is our commitment to academic honesty. Students, faculty, staff and administration share the responsibility for maintaining high levels of scholarship on campus. Any behavior or act which might be defined as “deceitful” or “dishonest” will meet with appropriate disciplinary sanctions, including dismissal from the University, suspension, grade F in a course or various forms of academic probation. Policies and procedures regarding academic honesty are contained in the faculty and student handbooks.


Plagiarism, cheating, unethical computer use and facilitation of academic dishonest are examples of behavior which will result in disciplinary sanctions. Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to:

·         word for word copying without using quotation marks or presenting the work as yours

·         using the ideas or work of others without acknowledgement

·         not citing quoted material. Students must cite sources for any information that is not either the result of original research or common knowledge. 


Standards of Student Conduct Statements:

·         Student Life Handbook

·         Academic Honesty Statement





Cal Lutheran University seeks to provide an environment that is free of bias, discrimination, and harassment.  If you have been the victim of sexual harassment/misconduct/assault we encourage you to report this.   If you report this to a faculty member, she or he must notify the Cal Lutheran University’s Title IX coordinator about the basic facts of the incident (you may choose whether you or anyone involved is identified by name).  For more information about your options at Cal Lutheran: